SHAFAQNA (Shia International News Association) -- Before answering the main question, there are some points which will be beneficial to understanding the whole of the matter.
1. Firstly, the rank of women as nurturers and educators of society in their roles as mothers and wives is a matter which cannot be denied. The Holy Quran states that obedience to parents comes right after obedience to God, and it has mentioned this unconditionally without making a difference between men or women. In addition, it has been recorded in the books of history that the Holy Prophet (s) gave a tremendous amount of respect to his wife Lady Khadijah (a), as well as to his daughter, the Lady Fatimah (a). This is the same reality which Imam Khomeini (the founder of the Islamic Republic) emphasized and commented on, saying: “The history of Islam gives testimony to the boundless respect that the Holy Prophet (s) gave to the Lady Fatimah (a) proving that women have a particularly important role to play in society, and if they are not superior to men, they are surely not inferior.”
2. Secondly, the equality of men and women is something which is derived from the words of the Holy Quran and is exceedingly clear in its explicitness. According to the Holy Quran, women have been created from the same spiritual and physical nature as men; both sexes are the same in terms of essence and nature.
The Holy Quran says: “O mankind! Reverence your Guardian-Lord, who created you from a single person, created, of like nature, His mate, and from them twain scattered (like seeds) countless men and women;- reverence Allah, through whom ye demand your mutual (rights), and (reverence) the wombs (That bore you): for Allah ever watches over you.” Another verse says: “It is He Who created you from a single person, and made his mate of like nature, in order that he might dwell with her (in love).”
In these verses of the Holy Quran, women are considered equal to men in terms of human value and men do not have any superiority over them. Each human being’s reality is composed of their soul, not their body; their humanity lies in their essence and not in their physical body. Therefore we should recognize human beings for what they are in terms of their essence, and not for what they are in terms of their physical bodies.
According to Quranic thought, women have the potential of being ‘complete human beings’ just like men, and they have the capacity to understand and also to act upon the things which are necessary on the path to human perfection. Whenever the Holy Quran speaks about human perfections and high values it does not put any differences between men and women and considers them equal in this respect. Not only does the Quran consider men and women as equals, but it also considers this equality as one of the signs of divine power and a means of peace of mind and fellowship.
It is on this very basis that Imam Khomeini (the founder of the Islamic Republic), was a believer in the equality of men and women. Imam Khomeini is quoted as saying:
“From the perspective of human rights, there is no difference between men and women; they are both human beings and a woman has the right to choose her own destiny, just like a man. Some differences do exist between men and women, but these don’t have anything to do with their actual human value and respect.
3. Thirdly, there is no tradition or sermon narrated from Imam Ali (a), where he considers men as being superior to women in terms of intellect or emotions. What has been attributed to Imam Ali (a) is that he said women are superior to men in terms of emotions and sentiments.
In terms of the 80th sermon of the Nahjul Balagha, in which Imam Ali (a) is quoted as having said some matters about the mental deficiencies of women, this matter is open to some points of scrutiny:
A. Firstly, if we are to assume that this tradition is correctly attributed to Imam Ali (a), it would still not mean that this is a general rule that applies to all women. According to historical records, this saying is attributed to the time after the Battle of the Camel (which Ayisha (the wife of the Prophet (s)) was involved in), where Talhah and Zubair used her social position as the wife of the Prophet (s) and initiated a large rebellion against the government of Imam Ali (a) in Basra. Imam Ali (a), after their defeat and the end of the war campaign is claimed to have delivered this sermon (which is now recorded in the Nahjul Balagha). Therefore, from its historical context it is evident that this sermon was potentially delivered to a select group amongst women and not to women in general. Without doubt, there have existed and still do exist women, who are more intelligent than the men of their times. Who can consider such women as the Lady Khadijah (a), Lady Fatimah (a), Lady Zainab (a), and other great women in history as being inferior to men? It is not possible to negate their intellect, nor their efforts in the forward march of Islam and their struggles against oppression. Therefore, it cannot be said that Imam Ali’s (a) words were directed as slander against all women.
In addition, Imam Ali (a) is recorded as having complained about the weakness of the men of Kufah and Basra. For example, in the 14th sermon of the Nahjul Balagha he is quoted as saying: “You intellects are weak and your thoughts are foolish.” In the 34th sermon, he is also quoted as saying: “Woe upon you (men)…you do not use your intellects.” Again, in the 97th sermon he says: “Oh you (group) whose bodies are present (physically) but whose intellects are absent (who do not have minds)…” In the 131st sermon he says: “O' (people of) differing minds and divided hearts, whose bodies are present but wits are absent.”
Here, Imam Ali (a) clearly rebukes a group of the men and introduces them as being without wisdom and being foolish minded. This took place even while the cities of Kufah and Basra have given birth to many a knowledgeable religious scholars. To put this into other words, certain situations and historical occurrences can take place in certain ways where they can have the grounds of praise or in other contexts the grounds of criticism . As time passes, these grounds and contexts for praise and criticism may cease to exist Therefore, the criticisms which are contained in the Nahjul Balagha about women, and the men of Kufah and Basrah, are of a specific nature and not general in their scope.
Further proof of this lies in the fact that Imam Ali (a) has attributed a lack of intellect to many other people as well. In a sermon, Imam Ali (a) says: “Conceit is a sign of weakness, insufficiency, and deficiency of the intellect.” In this tradition, as well as in other traditions, things such as conceit, lust, following the whims of the self, are among some of the factors counted as the causes of a deficiency in the intellect. Therefore, it is not improbable that this criticism of women’s intellect is a matter which follows along the same lines and simply means that there are some factors which cause the intellect to become deficient and that this was existent in a specific case during the Battle of the Camel. Since these causes are not essential parts of women , they are capable of removal through training and refinement.
In reality, these types of reprimands towards women are not directed at their nature, much in the same way that reprimanding a group of men does not censure their nature. These seem to be directed more towards states of being and actions which are things related to the external nature.
In addition, these traditions have an educational and reformatory message to protect men from giving in too much to the whims and wishes of women; in essence, men need to keep a spirit of independence in their decision making process. This is particularly applicable to war time situations where listening to the advice of women may lead to weakness or inactivity in the face of the enemy. This seemed to be something which took place during the time of Imam Ali’s (a) caliphate.
B- It can also be said that the intellect is divided into two segments:
1. The first is the mathematical or social intellect
2. The second is the ‘intellect of virtue’. It is possible that Imam Ali’s (a) intent with this article meant the superiority of man’s mathematical intellect and not the Intellect of virtue. In other words, there may be a difference in the computational intellect of women and men, but there is no difference in thevirtue intellect and the latter is the tool which allows both men and women to reach paradise. In this second type of intellect, there is no difference between men and women.
C- However much society may try to negate this concept, we cannot negate the fact that there are tangible differences between men and women. These differences include physical, psychological, and emotional factors, and have been mentioned so widely in various books, as well as other mediums, that repeating them is not necessary. The conclusion to this matter is that since women are the foundation of the creation and the existence of mankind, as well as its subsequent nurturing and training, therefore they have been created with a correspondingly larger share in emotions and feelings.
Therefore, the position of mothers and the education and training of children, as well as the division of love and affection between the children of a family are all roles give to a mother (women). In other words, men and women have no differences in terms of their human value and worth, but they do have differences in their physical bodies. God has created human beings in a way which corresponds with their duties and responsibilities on this earth; men and women are not exempt from this rule of creation. Men and women differ from each other in terms of their bodies, their psychology, and their emotions and sentiments. Women have a special attachment and interest in the family and their awareness of such matters is higher than men. They are also more sensitive of heart and the words of Imam Ali (a) show these psychological and physical differences. It was as if he was saying: The emotions of women predominate over her, and if it was not such, then women would not be able to act upon their duties as mothers. From this perspective, men are complete polar opposites in terms of their creation and this is part of the divine will; the existence of these differences is also considered essential. Therefore, Imam Ali (a) is not considering one sex superior to the other, but he is simply mentioning that there are differences, which are a human reality. The reality is that emotions and sentiments, while they are beneficial in their proper role and place, should not have the first word in matters of great importance.
 Sahifeye Nur, vol. 14, pg. 200.
 “یا ایها الناس اتقوا ربکم الذی خلقکم من نفس واحدة و خلق منها زوجها و بثّ منهما رجالاً کثیرا و نساء” Nisa:1.
 “هو الذی خلقکم من نفس واحدة و جعل منها زوجها لیسکن الیها” A’raf:189.
 Javadi Amoli, Abdullah, Zan dar Ayineye Jamal va Jalal, pg. 76.
 Ahzab:35; Ale Imran:195.
 Sahifeye Nur, vol. 3, pg. 49.
 Ma’adikhah, Khorshide bi Ghurub (Farsi translation of the Nahjul-Balaghah), Sermon 79.
 “خفت عقولکم و سفهت حلومکم...”.
 “اف لکم...فأنتم لا تعقلون...”.
 “أیها القوم الشاهدة أبدانهم الغائبة عنهم عقولهم...”.
 “أیتها النفوس المختلفة و القلوب المتشتته الشاهدة أبدانهم و الغائبة عنهم عقولهم...”.
 What is meant by this statement is that sometimes praise and criticism are results of the circumstances and contexts in which things take place.
 Javadi Amoli, Abdullah, Zan dar Ayineye Jalal va Jamal, pg. 368, 369.
 Ma’adikhah, Abdul-Majid, Khorshide bi Ghurub, sermons 13 and 14.
 “اعجاب المرء بنفسه دلیل علی ضعف عقله”, Al-Kafi, vol. 1, pg. 27, hadith 31, the book/chapter of ‘the mind and ignorance’ (Al-Aql wal Jahl).
 Like “اعجاب المرءِ بنفسه حمق”, Sharh Ghurarul-Hikam wa Durarul-Hikam, vol. 1, pg. 311.
 See: Zan dar Ayineye Jalal va Jamal.
 Usul Kafi, vol. 1, the book of ‘the mind and ignorance’, chapter 1, hadith 3, pg. 11. “العقل ما عبد به الرحمن و الکتاب به الجنان”.
 Zan dar Ayineye Jalal va Jamal, pg. 268 and 369.
 See: Tafsir Nemouneh, vol. 2, pg. 164.
SHAFAQNA (Shia International News Association) -- 1. Certainly, the by referring to Allah as light, the Qur'an does not intend to identify Him as a physical and sensory light because the sensible light is a part of the accident characteristic of matter whereas there are numerous arguments which negate the physicality of God, the Exalted, and which forbid us from considering God as a sensible and material light.
In addition, there are many Quranic verses which negate any similarity between God and anything else. Hence, if God has been described as being "the light of the Heavens and the earth", the term "light" which refers to God is not and cannot be the sensory light.
2. Light is something which makes things visible; which is itself manifest and helps make other things manifest. The human mind conceives light in this very sense. Absence of light is termed darkness, invisibility and obscurity. On the other hand, when there is visibility and things become exposed to view, man says there is light. Allah has been called `Light’ in this basic sense. This conception of light has nothing to do with the reality of the meaning for which human mind has coined this word. If we analyze the meaning of light in relation to God, it would be correct to use for spiritual matters in the sense that they illuminate the soul. For example, the word "Eman" has been termed as "light" in the Quran which is granted to a believer.
3. Since God is manifest and clear and He is the Creator and the Illuminator of the heavens and the earth, it is correct to use the word "light" for God. In fact, it is the existence of everything that is the cause of its manifestness to others; the highest form of light is therefore existence itself. Moreover, since the existence of contingent beings depends on the bestowal of existence by the Truth, the Supreme, He is the most complete instance of light. It is He Who is essentially manifest and also makes manifest all other-than-him. All other existents become manifest and existent by virtue of Him.
4. By the expression "the heavens and the Earth", what is intended is the entirety of the world of existence – all the celestial and the terrestrial existents; the apparent and the hidden worlds. "The heavens and the earth" does not merely signify the sky above and the Earth that we inhabit. Therefore, the meaning of the verse is that Allah is the Light of the entire universe. The reason why the verse has employed this word in lieu of the Creator is to point to the fact that just as light is itself visible and does not need anything else to make it visible, and it is light itself that illuminates all other things, likewise Allah has no creator and there is no other agent that could shed light on Him. He is a manifest, clear and self-evident existence. There is no need for formulating reasoning to prove His existence.
As propounded by the gnostics in following the mystical teachings of the Prophets and the Imams, Allah is manifest to the highest degree; He is absolutely clear, and hence there is no need for the mediation of His creatures to reveal Him. In other words, in order to reason for the existence of Allah, one should utilize the argument of cause rather than the argument of effect.
Without the light of the Divine Essence, the shadow of non-existence would envelope all things; the resulting darkness would not be like that of the night (rather it would be the darkness of non-existence).
Hence, it must be said that Allah is absolute light. In comparison to Him, there is no other light. All other lights in comparison to Him are darkness. For the only existent Who is by His essence manifest and manifesting, is Allah. All other things that are manifest and that illuminate other creatures are by their essences dark. It is Allah Who has bestowed on them that feature. If He is not seen, it is because He is obscured by the intensity of His light.
5. Another point that can be inferred from this verse is that we refer to Allah as light, not as "the greatest light", which implies that there are other lights as well, some more bright and others less bright, and that Allah is the greatest. According to the Qur'an, there is only one light and that is Allah, and everything else is dark and non-existent. It is true, however, that in comparing the creatures together, some are light and some are not - for instance, knowledge, faith, intellect etc., are light, but have all derived their light from Allah. Thus in comparison to Allah, there is no other light, or in other words, He is "the Light of Lights. That is, He is the light of all lights rather than being the greatest light. Therefore, the belief that Allah is the greatest light, that He is of the sensory lights but the brightest and the most intense – reputedly attributed to the Manicheans – is false.
6. There are different sayings, traditions and narratives in the interpretations concerning this verse. For information about them, one should refer to relevant books, exegesis (commentaries) and other textual sources.
SHAFAQNA (Shia International News Association) -- The holy Quran says in verse 15 of Sura Al-Maedah: "O followers of the Book! indeed Our Messenger has come to you making clear to you much of what you concealed of the Book and passing over much; indeed, there has come to you light and a clear Book from Allah."[i]
The commentators of the Holy Quran have said in the interpretation of this verse: "This sentence of the Quranic verse signifies the importance and greatness of the Holy Quran and its profound impact on human guidance and education."[ii] That is because the word "Book" in this verse has been used in the indefinite (nakirah) which somehow implies greatness and dignity[iii].
Late Allamah Tabatabai has said, "The sentence "wa kitabun mubin" is a coordinating conjunction explaining the word "noor". That is to say, the word "light" in the Quran refers to the Holy Quran. Technically, "clear Book" is an explanatory conjunction. That is, "a light has come down from God which is the clear Book".[iv]
In this verse, the word "clear" defines the Quran so as to make it distinct from other heavenly or non-heavenly books because no other book provides so clear and plain guidance and instructions as the Quran does.
The fact that the Quran repeats time and again that God has sent down the Quran is to remind people of the bounty of guidance so that they may not become negligent of the realities, guidelines and injunctions. Definitely, all these sayings should be after the revelation of the Quran not before it. Because if God says that He sent down the Book before its revelation, it is a lie. Additionally, many unbelievers as well as pagans had spread the rumor that the Quran had been written by the Prophet himself, peace be upon him and his family. The Quran dispels such a satanic and false assumption by reiterating and emphasizing on the fact that it (Quran) was sent down by God.
Therefore, in this holy verse, the revelation of the Quran means that it was sent down upon the Prophet (s) so that he would declare and make it known to people. It is not explaining something which is already clear.
[i] - Al-Maedah, 15,
یَأَهْلَ الْکِتَابِ قَدْ جَاءَکُمْ رَسُولُنَا یُبَینُِّ لَکُمْ کَثِیرًا مِّمَّا کُنتُمْ تخُْفُونَ مِنَ الْکِتَابِ وَ یَعْفُواْ عَن کَثِیرٍ قَدْ جَاءَکُم مِّنَ اللَّهِ نُورٌ وَ کِتَابٌ مُّبِینٌ.
[ii] - Makarem Shirazi, Naser, Tafsir Namunah, vol.4, pg. 321, Dar al-Kutub Al-Islamiyah, 8th edition, Tehran, 1363 (1984).
[iii] - Qira'ati, Mohsen, Tafsir Noor, Sura Maedah verse 15, Cultural Center for Quran Lessons, 1386 (2007)
[iv] - Tabatabai, Seyyed Muhammad Hussein, Al-Mizan, translated by Musavi Hamedani, vol.5, pg. 398.
SHAFAQNA (Shia International News Association) -- In order to properly answer this question, we must first discuss three preliminary matters. These matters are the actual definition of a miracle, the intent of a miracle, and the lack of incompatibility of a miracle with divine laws.
What is a Miracle?
Islamic scholars have said the following in regards to the definition of a miracle: ‘A miracle is a supernatural occurrence which is accompanied with tahaddi (challenge to bring the likes of something) and is in correspondence with the claim being made.’
The Intent of a Miracle
Miracles are performed with very high and lofty goals in mind and here we will mention some of them. Amongst these reasons are the manifestation of the limitless power of God, proving an individual’s prophethood, showing a special connection between a messenger and God, guiding people, and in some cases, manifesting the final proof in a matter (something which will close the case for any future argument of not knowing about a matter such as the existence of God). The goal behind various miracles is not separate from the issue of the prophethood of the Messengers of God (a); rather, it is within the same general category.
The Lack of Incompatibility in the Matter of Divine Laws and Miracles
The third verse of the Chapter Talaaq (قَدْ جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لِکُلِّ شَیْءٍ قَدْراً) mentions how God has set limits and a measure for every single cause which exists, and the effects of these causes are connected with other effects and things. In the case of miracles, He intervenes in these connections and links in a way that His desired effect takes place. Such examples can be found in Prophet Abraham (a) not being burned in the fire, the transformation of Prophet Moses’ (a) staff into a serpent, as well as other similar stories.
Therefore, it is very clear that miracles are not outside the scope of divine law and rather, it is part of the unchanging laws of God. When it is said that a miracle is outside the scope of normal occurrences this is not to mean that a miracle is a suspension of the laws of causation, because causation is something that both logic and the Quran corroborate.
In addition, the intent behind such miracles is a very lofty and high wisdom and it is not purely an answer to the request of ignorant individuals. As we have witnessed in history, many times the ignorance of people was not responded to in the form of miracles.
In order to understand this concept better, it is necessary to delve into three related issues. The first is a definition of what a miracle even is. The second is the intent of a miracle and the third is how a miracle is not incompatible with divine laws.
The Definition of a Miracle
Islamic scholars have mentioned the following in their definition of a miracle: ‘A miracle is a supernatural occurrence which is accompanied with tahaddi (challenge to bring the likes of something) and is in correspondence with the claim being made.’
Extraordinary acts or miracles are events that take place in a way other than what commonly takes place within the framework of natural laws. 
The Intent behind Miracles
Miracles are performed with very high and lofty goals in mind and they are not performed primarily as a response to ignorant individuals. There have been many cases where the ignorance of people has not been responded to with miracles. Below, we will refer to some of the possible reasons behind the performance of miracles:
1- Showing the limitless power of God.
2- The intent of miracles by the prophets (a) was in proving their prophethood.
3- Miracles were a way through which a special relationship with God was manifested.
4- The intent behind miracles was the guidance of the people.
5- Sometimes, miracles were performed in order to showcase a final proof over the people (so they would be unable to say that they did not know in regards to the existence of God or the truth of the words of a Prophet (a)).
The Lack of Incompatibility in the Matter of Divine Laws and Miracles
A primary question here is as to whether God performs miracles through material and causative means or whether He performs them through other means which we are unaware of. Both of these are possibilities but the last sentence of the third verse of Surah Talaq (قَدْ جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لِکُلِّ شَیْءٍ قَدْراً) lends more weight towards the reliability of the second issue which we have mentioned. This is because the verse has mentioned that God has set a limit and a measure for everything imaginable; therefore, every cause that is imaginable (such as the fire becoming cool for Prophet Abraham (a), or in the case of the staff of Prophet Moses (a) becoming alive, or in the case of Prophet Jesus (a) bringing the dead to life), even though they do not have any known and physical causes, or even other issues, such a piece of wood catching fire (which is an ordinary matter understood by all) are all due to God. In both of these cases, God has set up certain limits and measures for them and these effects are interrelated with other various effects; God intervenes in these effects and their connections in a way that His desired effect is yielded. Through these causes, God brings about various miracles, such as Prophet Abraham (a) not being burned by the fire. Furthermore, human beings are not the owners or the masters of all of the causes which exist in the world; God is their master and it is He who directs them (makes them exist and gives rise to their effects).
Therefore, from these verses of the Quran, it is understood that God has brought about a state of inter relation and connection between all of the things that exist and He is able to do whatever He wills. Such a thing is not a negation of causation between various things and it does not mean that just because a miracle has taken place, it took place without any cause. This is due to the fact that all things are in the hands of God and He can make things happen in any way or form that He wishes.In addition, a system exists (which we may not understand) which makes such miracles possible. When it is said that a miracle is something supernatural, this cannot be taken to mean that a miracle is an exception in the rules of causation; the laws of causation cannot be negated ever, because causation is something supported both by logic and the Quran.
 See: Allamah Hilli, Kashf al-Murad fi Sharh Tajrid al-I’tiqad, with the comments and corrections of Ayatullah HasanZadeh Amoli, pp. 350-353 and Ta’liqate Ayatullah HasanZadeh Amoli bar Kashf al-Morad, pg. 595; Rahbarane Bozorg va Mas’uliyat’haye Bozorgtar, pp. 119-153; Motahhari, Morteza, Moqaddame’i bar Jahan Biniye Islami, Jame’eye Mudarresin Press, 1983, pp. 179 and 208; al-Mizan, vol. 1, pp. 58-90; Farsi translation of al-Mizan, vol. 1, pp. 93-140; Insane Kamil az Didgahe Nahjul-Balaghah, pp. 8-21; Malekshahi, Tarjome va Sharhe Esharate Ibn Sina, pp. 466-491; Mulla Sadra,Shawahid al-Rububiyyah, pp. 340-349, with the late Sabzawari’s annotations and the annotations, correction and introduction of Sayyid Jalal Ashtiyani, second edition; Mulla Sadra, Faslun fi Usul al-Mu’jizaat wa Khawariq al-Adaat, translated by Ahmad bin Muhammad al-Huseini Ardekani with the effort of Abdullah Noori, pp. 538-549.
 Adopted from: The Miracle of Prophet Yusuf and the Interpretation of Dreams, Question 3200 (website: 3460).
 Qara’ati, Muhsin, Tafsir Noor, vol. 3, pg. 246, Publisher: The Cultural Institute of Lessons from the Quran, Tehran, 2004.
 Ja’fari, Ya’qub, Kawthar, vol. 3, pg. 298.
 Qara’ati, Muhsin, Tafir Noor, vol. 3, pg. 246.
 Tabatabai, Muhammad Husein, Tafsir al-Mizan, Musawi Hamedani, Sayyid Muhammad Baqir, vol. 1, pp. 120 and 121, The Office of Islamic Publications of Jame’eye Mudarresin of the Islamic Seminary in Qum, Qum, 1995.
 Adopted from: The Miracle of Prophet Yusuf and the Interpretation of Dreams, Question 3200 (website: 3460).
SHAFAQNA (Shia International News Association) In regards to proper knowledge of God, we must say that, based on authentic traditions, the criterion is to avoid likening God to anything and divesting God of His attributes. For further explanation in this regard, read the detailed answer below:
Cognition of God is possible by way of knowledge of divine epiphanies. He who knows God finds God in himself and this is possible by way of self-disclosure or self-unveiling on his heart. To further explain, based on authentic traditions transmitted from the Infallibles (a.s.), the criterion in cognition of God is to avoid likening Him to anything and divesting God of His attributes. When it comes to likening God to anything and divesting God of His attributes, we must say:
Negation of divine attributes and likeness will practically lead to ta’til or negation of divine attributes for those who have no intellectual and intuitive knowledge of God. Negation of divine attributes means to divest God of His kingdom and attributes considering no relationship between the Creator and creatures. As for likening (tashbih), it is the opposite of ta’til in the sense that it is likening God to His creatures and believing that God’s features and attributes are the same as those of human beings. As it has been quoted, “gatheredness of God and creatures (jam’) amounts to disbelief and divesting Him of all attributes amounts to ‘ta’til’ and the combination of the two is tawhid (monotheism)., 
In a nutshell, we must avoid divesting God of His attributes which means we should not consider Him as deprived of all kinds of attributes. We must accept His glorious presence in the world of existence. To avoid likening God to anything also means that we must not associate anything with God by drawing similarity between God and things which are the expressions of divine attributes. We must, instead, be mindful of their Creator.
In other words, God is never imaginable and comprehendible through the mind and the right way to know God is the ‘way of heart’ in the sense that we must acquire knowledge of God through loving the epiphanies of God.
It is only in the state of real love that knowledge of the divine expressions and epiphanies lead to knowledge of God. That is because God is neither the epiphanies nor is He separated from them. Knowledge of God is perfected when one cognizes the perfect man.
For further information in this regard, refer to the following answers:
o Possibility of Cognition of God, 15792 (site: 15628)
o Cognition and Love of God 9344 (site: 9327)
o Fitrah and Cognition of God 1041 (site: 1105)
o Glorification (Tasbih) in Prayer with Divine Praise (site: 9773).
 «ان الجمع بلا تفرقه زندقه و التفرقه بدون الجمع تعطیل و الجمع بینهما توحید» Amuli, Sayyid Haider, Jami’ al-Asrar wa Manba’ al-anwar, p. 117, Cultural and Scientific Publications, 1368; Hasan Zadeh Amuli, Mamad al-Hemam, p. 109, Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, 1378 (1999).
SHAFAQNA (Shia International News Association) – According to the Grand Ayatollah Javadi Amoli, reading Quran has its rules and manners such as how to pronounce the letters, where to stop or where to join the words. But the main purpose behind reading Quran is for a human to read it in a way to observe the object of worship. In order to get to such a phase, nothing expect the love of worshipped will be in the heart of the worshipper. The human can distinguish if there is something else in the heart apart from God.
Imam Sajjad (AS) said, if I am the only person on the earth, as long as the Quran is with me, I will never panic. The aim of the worship is for the worshipper to observe the worshipped in the heart. This is not impossible but at the same time have its rules and manners. Reading Quran is worship and to reach the stage of observation one must have control over the eyes and ears. Each person must be careful to carry out all acts according to religion and to not to neglect remembering God at work or at home. At the time of reading Quran, when a person can observe the owner of those words with inner eyes, then that individual has reached the purpose behind reading Quran.
SHAFAQNA (Shia International News Association) –
Logical proof of the existence of God
SHAFAQNA (Shia International News Association) -- If what we mean by seeing God is seeing Him through the outer physical eye, it something totally ruled out both by the intellect and Islamic sources.
The intellect: the action of seeing takes place only when things are exposed to light beams and their reflection is captured by the eye. This means that there should firstly be an external thing present and secondly it should be captured by the eye in the field of vision. Based on this we cannot see things which are behind us, whereas God is not a physical entity and He does not have the physical features of a physical being. Therefore He can not be seen with the naked eye.
Islamic sources: There are verses in the Holy Quran and traditions which stipulate the impossibility of seeing God.
a) The Holy Quran says:
1 - O Moses you can never see me.
2 – The eyes cannot see Him.
b) Traditions: "God never appears before the eyes"
But if what we mean by seeing God is seeing Him through an inner witnessing and witnessing the light of the names and attributes of God in the heart, within the limits that human beings have then it is possible. Imam Ali (a) says: "Hearts can perceive Him". In another tradition he says to Za'lab: "Shame on you! Eyes cannot see Him but the hearts can."
 Surah Aaraaf, Verse 143
 Surah Anaam, Verse 103
 Nahjul Balagha sermon: 49
 Nahjul Balagha sermon: 109
 Nahjul Balagha sermon: 179
 Nahjul Balagha sermon: 179
 Mizan Al Hekmat, Vol. 6, P. 190, Hadith: 12095