SHAFAQNA (Shia International News Association) — Information technology is a powerful tool for experts working to provide secure access to water for personal use, food production, and business in developing nations.
Giving poor people proper access to safe water and sanitation would save 2.5 million people a year from dying from diarrhea and other diseases spread by a lack of hygiene, according to the charity WaterAid.
The widespread availability of mobile phones has enabled the development of low-cost solutions aimed at improving water security and reducing poverty.
Three quarters of the world's 7 billion people have access to a mobile phone, according to a World Bankreport. There are 6 billion mobile subscriptions worldwide, of which almost 5 billion are in developing countries.
This is where mobile networks come in – they have led to the development of communication services that aim to increase the transparency and reliability of water delivery. For example, mobile technology has allowed service providers to monitor water supply to prevent theft and leakages, while offering more effective repairs and billing.
But these innovative efforts still face huge political and logistical challenges, complicated by the risks linked to climate change, experts say.
Here are five mobile strategies that are already helping people get better access to water and sanitation:
Timely data on the state of water infrastructure is key to implementing a secure water supply. Akvo FLOW (Field Level Operations Watch) is a mobile application that uses Android-operated devices, the internet, and map-reporting tools in Google Maps and Google Earth to collect, analyze, and report data for monitoring water supplies.
The system, which has been used in 17 countries in Africa, Asia, Central America, and South America since 2010, was developed by two nonprofit organizations: Water For People, which helps communities in developing countries access clean drinking water; and Akvo, which creates web and mobile software to improve the delivery of humanitarian aid.
In 2011, the Liberian government, assisted by the World Bank, used Akvo FLOW to map 10,000 water points in Liberia.
Smart-card tap system
Lifelink, developed by Denmark-based Grundfos AS, uses submersible borehole pumps powered by solar or wind power to deliver water to an elevated storage tank.
Gravity forces the water to flow into a tap unit in a small building, which also serves as a payment facility. Customers buy water credits that are stored on a "smart card," using mobile-phone banking. They insert the smart card into a slot at the tap unit to purchase water.
A percentage of the money goes towards service and maintenance. Lifelink staff can monitor water pressure, temperature, and the amount of water tapped from anywhere in the world via the internet.
The company, which provides the service in urban and rural communities, says it has implemented drinking-water supply systems for 100,000 people in Kenya and is expanding into other African countries and Asia. www.shafaqna.com/English